- See also: Coins.
There are several ways to earn money:
- Killing monsters and bosses.
- Selling items to NPCs.
- Finding coins in pots and chests.
- Using Silt Blocks, Slush Blocks, and Desert Fossils at an Extractinator.
- Opening Crates.
- Taxing your village.
- Finishing Fishing Quests for the Angler.
- Picking up coins from the Leprechaun o'Fyffe.
- If you have a meteor on your world you can farm Meteor Heads.
- 1 General tips
- 2 Crafting: Making 1 Gold Coin
- 3 Collecting
- 4 Fighting bosses
- 5 Statue farming
- 6 Monster Farming
- 7 Fishing
- 8 Obsidian
- 9 Cheating
- 9.1 Player duplication
- 9.2 Read-only world file
- 9.3 Item servers
- 9.4 TShock server
- 9.5 World Edit Tools
- 9.6 Terrasavr Inventory Editor
- 9.7 Item Duplication with TerrariaServer
- 9.8 Magic Mirror Duplication
- 9.9 Exit+Rejoin
- 9.10 Exit+Rejoin 2.0
- 9.11 Exit+Rejoin 2.1
- 9.12 Chest/World Save Copying
- 9.13 2-Player Duplication
General tips[edit | edit source]
- Regularly deposit your money into a Chest, Piggy Bank, or Safe. This minimizes the loss of coins from Death, as death drops at least half the coins carried in the inventory.
- When exploring, keep any materials used for boss summoning items, such as Lenses, Lead Bars and Iron Bars, and Vertebrae and Rotten Chunks. In most cases, fighting bosses is extremely profitable compared to selling the individual materials.
- Ores can be sold for a good amount of money, but only do so when you're sure there's no other uses for them.
- Most weapons and accessories can be sold for a good amount of money, but make sure that they're outclassed by your current items and that they can't be crafted into stronger items.
Crafting: Making 1 Gold Coin[edit | edit source]
The following tables show different ways of making 1 . The items in the left column are sold to the NPC and the items in the middle column are the raw ingredients required for crafting.
- See also: Guide:Gardening
Note: the Sand Blocks are not used directly; you need to craft them into Bottled Water or Mugs first. Please note that these tables show the amount of crafting ingredents requied for one gold, not one whole result item.
Low-Tech[edit | edit source]
High-Tech[edit | edit source]
Note: When crafting with the alchemy table, there's a chance you won't consume ingredients, resulting in more profit per ingredient used
Hardmode Low-Tech[edit | edit source]
Collecting[edit | edit source]
- Crystal Shards are easy to collect and sell for lots of money: 999 shards can get you 1 , 59 and 84 .
- Pots, in the desktop version breaking them has a chance to open up a Coin Portal, giving 5-15 .
- Penguins can be caught with a Bug Net and sold for 12 and 50 each. Build your first shelter in the Snow biome to collect many Penguins.
On mobile devices, in the cavern layer and in pyramids you may find what appears to be a small bag of coloured powder. Breaking them drops copper, silver, and gold coins. In Hardmode, there is a new one that drops platinum coins.
Strange plants can also be traded for expensive dyes early on
Fighting bosses[edit | edit source]
Trophies[edit | edit source]
In addition to the drops stated below, boss trophies can be sold for 1 each, making another 10 per boss kill on average.
Eater of Worlds/Brain of Cthulhu[edit | edit source]
The Eater of Worlds and the Brain of Cthulhu drop many items and biome-specific ores that can sell for a good amount of money. After the player reaches Hardmode, these bosses can easily be defeated many times in a row, resulting in lots of money.
Crimtane ore is much better than demonite as the price is higher and is easier to obtain. Simply go to a pre-hard mode world and farm vertebrae to create bloody spines. As the brain can be summoned all time it offers a better money oportunity
Eye of Cthulhu[edit | edit source]
After the player reaches Hardmode, the Eye of Cthulhu can easily be defeated many times in a row, resulting in lots of money. It is possible to fight the Eye 8+ times in one night, which sums up to 90+ .
The Destroyer[edit | edit source]
In Hardmode, the player can fight The Destroyer and easily win if they have good enough gear (Mythril/Orichalcum armor is advised as a minimum, piercing weapons like the magic dagger are recommended). After crafting everything you need with his Souls of Might, you can just sell them. They sell for 80 each, and you would normally get 20-40 of them per kill. Besides, The Destroyer also drops 15-30 Hallowed Bars, which can be sold for 40 per piece. However, these can be crafted into any type of Helmet, for an extra 20 per 12 bars.
Expected Profit: Little more than 22-46 (More in Expert Mode) per kill.
Queen Bee Bashing[edit | edit source]
The Queen Bee becomes very easy to fight with hardmode weapons, especially end-game weapons like The Horseman's Blade , Terra Blade, etc. The QBs drop 10 per kill, and it is possible to kill one in about 20 seconds only with powerful enough stuff. An Unreal Tactical Shotgun with Crystal Bullets in full Shroomite Armor and max damage accessories (with damage modifiers) can kill the Queen Bee in 2-3 shots. Therefore, it is possible to make 30 a minute, or 18 an hour, not counting the queen bee's numerous drops. Also, the Queen Bee has no time restrictions and only needs to be summoned (not fought) in a jungle. In fine, Abeemination is rather easy to craft, as honey is dropped from the queen bee, stingers are dropped from the numerous hornets in the jungle, and honey blocks can be farmed renewably. However, you'll need to plunder beehives to get the non-renewable Hive.
Expected Profit: Varies
Wall of Flesh[edit | edit source]
Using post-Hardmode gear, you can farm the Wall of Flesh quickly and cheaply with a Flamethrower or a Golden Shower (Golden Shower is preferable since farming gel is harder than waiting for the Mana to recharge, barring access to a Slime Statue gel-farm.). Since you can summon him in day or night you can make more money than other bosses, unfortunately the amount of summons is based on guide respawns and voodoo demon spawns. Drops 10 just for killing him, a Pwnhammer which sells for about 1 , and a random other item which sells for 2 to 10 .
Another trivial way to farm the Wall in early Hardmode, even before defeating any mechanical bosses, is by combining summons, such as the Spider Staff with the Spider armor, with a good Yoyo, such as the Amarok, and the Yoyo Bag. The Amarok is easy to obtain in the Underground Snow biome and does tremendous damage to the Wall and its Hungries with a Yoyo Bag and its Frostburn debuff. While obtaining enough Spider Fangs to craft a Spider Staff and Spider armor is not so trivial, it is well worth the investment as the damage of five Spider minions makes the Underworld surprisingly safe. Red Devils can be a problem after at least one mechanical boss has been defeated, however.
Expected Profit: About 4-7 (More in Expert Mode) per kill.
Golem[edit | edit source]
Alternatively, you can make quite a bit just farming while grappled to the ceiling of his room. Drop a Water Candle on one of the tables in range of your grapple spot, optionally toss up some banners for the Lihzahrds and Flying Snakes, and just shoot downward for awhile. Periodically drop to collect the coins and Power Cells needed to spawn him. This method also has the benefit of spawning Mimics fairly commonly, which also drop a nice chunk of money. When you've collected a bunch of power cells, just drop and spawn Golem repeatedly.
Expected Profit: 10 plus the item(s) he drops.
Pumpkin Moon[edit | edit source]
With full Nebula Armor, your choice of accessories, a Celestial Emblem or Celestial Cuffs, and the Last Prism, all with strong modifiers, the player can easily tear through the waves of enemies, especially with a flat arena. The Last Prism has extremely high DPS and pierces through multiple enemies, allowing the player to attack multiple bosses at once. The enemies drop plenty of Hearts and Stars, so if you're constantly moving, it's difficult to die. If you start at 7:30 PM and are in wave 15 for at least half the event, you should have many inventories of items to sell (note that Spooky Wood has no sell value unless crafted into helmets, which sell for 1 each).
Another way is to use hoik engine and statue to give player mana stars without potion needed
Expected Profit: Varies 20 to 35 per day.
Lepus[edit | edit source]
Make a house with a layer of Lava so thin so the drops don't burn. Put the thin layer of lava on top of the house and on the sides. You may want lava protection to collect the drops of the Lepus. Because you can summon multiple Lepuses, this is a good way to make money.
Expected Profit: Ratio of Suspicious Looking Egg to money is 20 :1
Statue farming[edit | edit source]
Note: As of 1.3, Statue farming is much less time-efficient for generating money than before.
Note: As of 1.3, Sharks and mimics spawned by statues no longer spawn Dungeon Spirits.
Many statues spawn items or monsters, which can be farmed for money. The basic setup involves connecting a statue to a 1 Second Timer (or a Crab Engine). Place the statue in a shallow layer of lava (recommended) or connect a few Dart Traps to kill the spawned monsters. Once you click the switch, all you have to do is stand still, or even return from time to time to collect the rewards.
Bomb Statues are the exception: no lava or traps are required, but only 3 bombs can spawn at once, so you need to stay close to collect the bombs.
Using Bunny Statues and Fish Statues during a Blood Moon will spawn their corrupt counterparts, which rarely drop Bunny Hoods. The normal spawn limit for Statues is 3 mobs at a time, but when Goldfish and Bunnies change to their corrupt counterparts, they don't count towards the Statue's spawn limit, so you can have seemingly endless amounts of them on screen. This does not affect their actual spawn rate.
- The Jellyfish Statue will yield about 81 per hour, and will fill your inventory in about 13 minutes. This makes the Jellyfish statue probably the most effective one if you resell the items quickly.
- The Bomb Statue will yield about 39 per hour, and will fill your inventory in about 46 minutes.
- The Skeleton Statue will yield about 34 per hour, and will fill your inventory in about 18 minutes.
- The Fish Statue will yield about 19 30 per hour and will fill your inventory in about 2 hours.
- The Bat Statue will yield about 7 70 per hour and will fill your inventory in about 46 minutes.
- The Piranha Statue will yield about 6 50 per hour and will fill your inventory in about 3 hours.
- The Slime Statue will yield about 2 60 per hour and will fill your inventory in about 4.6 hours.
- The Bunny Statue will yield about 1 30 per hour and will fill your inventory in about 12.5 hours.
- The Bird Statue and Crab Statue will yield about 65 per hour and will fill your inventory in about 6.4 days.
- Sharks and mimics are slow to kill, limiting the effectiveness of such farms. These statues, however, can be used to farm ectoplasm (as both monsters have more than 100 health points), which sell for 50 each. If one has already defeated Plantera and looted the Lihzahrd Temple of traps, this method can yield about 50 , or even more if you're lucky.
Ideally, you would want to have all of the statues available so that you can also use some of the items dropped, if needed, and so that you can get the most profit by effectively adding up all of the profit you would get from just one of each statue.
Housing a vendor NPC near the farm is strongly suggested for selling convenience.
OnDesktop Version Critters spawned by statues can not be caught using a bug net to sell to a vendor NPC.
Expected profit(using one statue and one 1 Second Timer):
- The Bunny Statue and the Bird Statue will yield about 3 per minute.
- The Fish Statue will yield about 4 50 per minute.
AFK Granite Golem Farm[edit | edit source]
As of 1.3, the Granite Golem statue has been added, along with others. This is one of the few statues that can be killed by the environment (e.g. lava) and still give its drops. However, its drop rate is reduced by 4 times. So, as it is, the Granite Golem drops: Night Vision Helmet which sells for 2 , and has about a .8% drop, and along with the ample Granite Blocks which has a 25% drop rate of 5-10 blocks. These blocks can be converted at a 1:1 ratio to Smooth Granite Blocks, which can be crafted into bathtubs, which sell for 60 or, with a torch, lamps which sell for 1 . Simply set up 1 or more statues to a crab/bird engine or a 1 second timer, either spawning on lava, or on Conveyor Belts. If you use conveyor belts, you can move the golems away from the statue allowing more spawns to happen.
Granite Candrelabra gives 3 and even if you buy the torches you still get 1 50 for using 3 blocks compared to the bathtube that uses 14 blocks.
Monster Farming[edit | edit source]
Once in Hardmode you can buy Gold Dust to craft ammunition which will increase the amount of money monsters drop on death. Also, don't forget mobs spawn as much below you as above, so filling in any caves below your farm can increase spawn rates within the farm.
Slime Staff Farming[edit | edit source]
If you have a Lucky Coin and Slime Staff (Slime statues do drop Slime Staffs) you can farm for money very easily at the rate of about 10 Gold/Minute. Making full use of the NPC spawning mechanic, it is possible to make the speed exceed 1 platinum per minute. A simple way to apply the slime staff is to create a space in the Lihzarhd Temple where you can stand in a box in an open space with all of the Lihzarhds crowing below you. Then summon all of the slimes you can. The slimes hit very quickly and only do about 1 damage a hit, with each hit giving a chance to drop several gold coins due to the Lucky Coin. You can do a similar farm by creating a box in the Ocean and putting 80 lihzard blocks around you (to spawn Arapaimas and increase spawn rate). However, as the game mechanic works for piercing projectile (minions are counted as projectile, and as the slime won't vanish like common bullets after hitting one monster, it is considered as a piercing projectile) one monster will have 1/6 second's invulnerability time after it is hit by the slime, making the effect of adding more slimes not as much as someone may think. Also going into the Dungeon and looking for Paladins and Bone Lees but they are powerful enemies so this is not recommended.
Hallow Farm[edit | edit source]
Building[edit | edit source]
The first thing to do is to clear out a flat area in The Hallow, which will help the spawn rate. Then create a pillar, at least 15 blocks high. The pillar should be made out of Hallow blocks or wood. After that, clear out two holes on both both sides of the pillar. These should be a thin layer, and not enough to destroy drops. This will kill the Unicorns. The next step is to make the part to kill the Pixies and Gastropods. It should have two box shaped parts, the first part thinner than the second, which will help catch the pixies in the trap. Some players may want to separate the parts with platforms. There should be Dart Traps or Super Dart Traps on both sides of the second section. These traps should be connected to a 1 Second Timer with wires. It is optional to have spear traps. This will kill the Pixies and Gastropods. The next step is to set up the player room. For maximum efficiency, the room should have a Water Candle, a Heart Lantern, a Campfire, Banners for the enemies, and a chest to store items. This room should have doors to allow the player to exit, but not allow enemies in. The player should also have a minion.
Loot[edit | edit source]
You will make the most money off a 99 stack of Unicorn Horns, which will sell for 29 70 each. The second most money will be from Blessed Apples, which sell for 5 each. The third most money will be from Fast Clocks and Megaphones, which sell for 2 each. All the enemies also drop money.
|99 Unicorn Horns||29 70||Unicorn|
|Blessed Apple||5||All Hallow|
|99 Pixie Dust||99||Pixie|
|999 Gel||9 99||Gastropod|
|Unicorn On A Stick||1||Unicorn|
Mimics[edit | edit source]
It's very effective to kill Mimics because they drop 10 Gold Coins by death, and you can sell the items they drop for even more money. And it's easy to kill them by using a continuously swinging sword with enough knockback to keep the Mimic at distance or killing them using a ranged weapon from a distance. If one has access to Gold Bullets or Flask of Gold, it will be wise to use them, as it will raise money dropped by Mimics even to 24 Gold Coins.
Hardmode Dungeon[edit | edit source]A very fun and effective way to grind money is to gear up with endgame gear and farm the Hardmode Dungeon. After killing Plantera go in there and farm all the monsters you see. Armored Bones drop over ten silver each, and they are so common that you can easily rack up a lot of money fast. Also, sell the Ectoplasm and drops you don't need for even more money. In one hour, you might be able to get five platinum with water candles and battle potions and maybe even a lucky Blood Moon. Another way to use the dungeon for money-making is to use a farm. Lihzahrd Temple-type traps can prove to be very useful in this method, and will make fighting in the dungeon a lot safer.
Hardmode Spider Nest[edit | edit source]
An effective way to get money is in the Hardmode Spider Nest with a strong sword such as a Cutlass or Excalibur and a Water Candle and/or Battle Potion. Black Recluses drop 5 directly, Spider Fangs which can be crafted into Queen Spider Staff, which sell for 5 each, and Poison Staffs that sell for 4 each, which varies with modifiers that can change the sell value dramatically.
Expected Profit: Roughly 1 32 per minute
AFK with NPC "army"[edit | edit source]
Build yourself a little shelter. (It is recommended to NOT having even a proper door, in case a Blood Moon occurs.) You will also need a considerable amount of NPCs because they strike enemies. All you have to do is just stay in your shelter, and let your NPCs do all the work. Be AFK all night if you wish to.
Then, when you return, the NPCs should have left coins everywhere from the enemies that they slay. Also, if it is a seasonal event, you can find items like Goodie Bags and Presents as well. Using Conveyor Belts helps make this process easier, because Conveyor Belts brings the items closer.
Expected Profit: 2 per night
Fishing[edit | edit source]
Crate Fishing[edit | edit source]
Fishing for Crates with Crate Potions is an easy way to make great amounts of money early on. All you need is a good Fishing Rod (Golden Fishing Rod + Fishing Accessories and Angler armor for best effect), enough Bait and some Crate Potions. To get the Crate Potions you can complete Angler Quests or you can craft them yourself by extractinating Amber from Desert Fossils or Slush/Silt and growing Moonglow and Deathweed with a small farm.
Expected Profit: 30 per Potion
Obsidian[edit | edit source]
Go to cavern layer above Underworld or between Underworld and Underground. Search for large water areas, hellevator will help you with this, then go into it and dig all the way down until you combine all that water with huge lava lake. Then start mining obsidian, when mining obsidian between lava and water, lava won't damage you as water will immediately turn another block of lava into obsidian. However, digging while in water can be hard, bringing Gills Potions and Diving Helmet can help you with that.
After that, go to Furnace and make Obsidian Skulls with all that obsidian, it requires only 20 obsidian to be made, and is worth 54 each, in addition, Obsidian Skulls very often contain modifiers to increase their price.
Expected Profit: 1 per 2 skulls/40 obsidian
Cheating[edit | edit source]
Player duplication[edit | edit source]
When a character (or world) is created, it is saved as a file on your computer. This means that it can be copied like any other file. The default directory for such files are
C:\Users\USERNAME\Documents\My Games\Terraria\Players, though this may change with OS. Characters are stored as .plr files; a character called "Manbearpig" will be saved as "Manbearpig.plr". If this file is copied (into "Manbearpig2.plr", for example) the in-game character selection menu will feature two characters named "Manbearpig". (Note that there is no need to copy "Manbearpig.plr.bak". Also note that the order of the .plr files in the Players-folder is representative for the in-game character list.) Any character that has items stored in portable storage, such as a Safe or Piggy Bank will also have an associated folder with the same name as the character (e.g., a folder named "Manbearpig"). If the character's folder is also copied, the player will be able to duplicate items in portable storage.
The copy will feature all items held and worn by the original (and the accompanying folder will contain all items kept in portable storage), allowing the player to duplicate money and items by repeatedly copying Manbearpig.plr (and Manbearpig folder) and deposit the copies' inventories in a storage item in-game. Creating money like this makes it increase exponentially: if you start with 1 and copy it 31 times, you will have a little more than 999 (1*2=2 (one copy) → 230=1073741824 copper coins = 1073 platinum coins).
Copied character files can afterwards be deleted with no issues arising, though you may wish to also delete each copy's respective .plr.bak file and folder (keeping obsolete .bak files and folders will not impact the game, but it may cause yourself some confusion later). Though arguably being somewhat cumbersome, this method is convenient as it requires no third-party software.
Read-only world file[edit | edit source]
Set your world to "read-only" while you have all your coins in a chest, then load the world. Take the coins, and exit. Set "read-only" off and play again. The coins you took while the world was "read-only" will be in the chest, and you can take them out. If you had, say, about 50 gold, you could get a platinum, and, if you do it again, you can get 2 platinum. And you can do this method whenever needed to get coins back.
Item servers[edit | edit source]
Certain servers are dedicated to distributing free items and coins, placed in automatically-refilling chests. These items and coins can be taken freely. Some servers also grant you access to free command of every items in the game.
TShock server[edit | edit source]
Instead of using the dedicated server software that ships with Terraria, you can set up a more powerful and advanced server up with TShock. As an admin, you can give yourself free items through Item IDs.
World Edit Tools[edit | edit source]
World edit tools, like TEdit or some other tool, is easy to add or manipulate items. It even can set Modifiers that do not agree with common sense, like "Unreal Mythril Anvil".
Terrasavr Inventory Editor[edit | edit source]
Using inventory editors such as Terrasavr can be a way to get money for experimental purposes.
Item Duplication with TerrariaServer[edit | edit source]
- 1. Place the item(s) you want to dupe in a chest in a world (can be any world, it wont affect the items in it afterwards) and exit the world, but not the game.
- 2. Run
start-server-steam-private(can be found in
C:\Program Files (x86)\Steam\steamapps\common\Terraria).
start-server-steam-privatewill open the TerrariaServer console window, but it won't close the console window every time you exit like
- 3. In the TerrariaServer console window, select the world where you stored the item(s) you wish to dupe.
- 4. In the Terraria game, join multiplayer game and type
localhostin the ip page.
- 5. Take all the items you want to duplicate using your character (do not exit the world).
- 6. In the TerrariaServer console window, type
exit-nosave(it disconnects your character but doesn't save the world, so your items will still be as it was before you loaded the world).
- 7. In the Terraria game, go to a world and unload all your duplicated items, and exit the world.
- Repeat steps to do it over and over again. This only works if you are the server host, it won't work on anyone else's world.
Magic Mirror Duplication[edit | edit source]
Note: Doesn't work if you're the host.
Note: Items have a chance of disappearing.
First, in your inventory highlight the coin(s) you want to duplicate. Then, exit out of your inventory. After that has been done, you use the magic mirror and while the screen turns black, you pull up your inventory and pick up the coin(s).
An easier method of duplication if timing is a problem is to turn auto-save off in settings and toss the coins out at spawn, go off the server, re-enter, pick up the coins, and save manually, and repeat until the satisfactory amount is reached.
Exit+Rejoin[edit | edit source]
Note: To make it easier, be the host.
Note: Does not work with a piggy bank/safe.
Put the items you need in a chest, then save the game. Then, turn autosave off. Afterwords, leave the game without saving. ➡️Go back into the world you were in, and take the items and loot from the chest. Then, exit without saving again. Then, go back to where the ➡️ was in the text and do it again.
This is expected to duplicate the item, as it will be in the player's inventory and chest at the same time.
Note: No longer works as of the 1.2.4 update.
Exit+Rejoin 2.0[edit | edit source]
Note: Doesn't work if you're the host.
Note: Requires either online multiplayer or a second controller and account.
Note: Will work with multiple players.
Note: It can be extremely slow.
First, gather the items you want to duplicate, and give them to the other player. Make sure they have autosave off, and they save with the items in their inventory. (WARNING: Doing the previous part the other way around (saving without the items, exiting when you have them) will not duplicate and instead DELETE the items!) Then, have them give you back the items. Next, they have to exit the game without saving, then rejoin. You and them will have the items and their amounts, doubling the amount you both have. And You can use this trick for almost every item.
Depending on what items you duplicating, you can sell them for a lot of money.
Exit+Rejoin 2.1[edit | edit source]
Note: You will need 2 players.
Place a chest, and turn autosave off. Have a second player join with autosave on. Put the amount of money to be duplicated into any chest, then save the game. After the game finishes saving, have the second player leave the game, then have the host leave WITHOUT SAVING. Then, have both players rejoin. The money would still be in the chest, and in the second player's inventory. Have the second player take the money, leave the game, then have the host leave the game without saving again. Repeat until the wanted amount is reached.
Every after duplicating, put the duplicates in the chest you're using, then save the game, take all the money, & have the second player leave and the host leave without saving. Then have both of them rejoin, and then have the second player put the new duplicates in the chest and then save it. And then take the money. then have the host leave the game. Repeat until the wanted amount is reached.
The money can also be replaced by any item you like to be duplicated.
Chest/World Save Copying[edit | edit source]
Note: Requires 2 locations to save, works vise-versa (character save copying), and Super tedious.
Like the Desktop versions of Terraria, the world saves and the character inventory saves are separate. To do this, Place a chest, and put the amount of money you want to duplicate into the chest and save both hard drives (you may need to copy it into the 2nd hard drive). Place the items into your character's inventory, and save and exit the game entirely. Go into the system setting and access storage. Copy the world save from the 2nd hard drive into the 1st. Collect duplicated items. Repeat until the wanted amount is reached.
2-Player Duplication[edit | edit source]
Note: Items have a chance for disappearing.
Get the item you want to duplicate into a chest. Get one of your friends to join your world. You must get into the chest first, then your friend can open it. Place the item you want to duplicate into the chest. Select the item and press "Take" at the same time. Make sure both you and your friend have the item in their inventories. You can take the item and leave, or you can continue duplicating by placing the items back the the chest ONE AT A TIME! Otherwise, the item may un-duplicate.
Note: This method of duplication will only work if you are the host and someone else joins your world.
Also with latest update you can duplicate characters for unlimited resources